Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Hospital Emergency Operations Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Medical clinic Emergency Operations Plan - Essay Example The crisis plan for the medical clinic has rules for office departure. Office assessment is attempted when the current condition can't satisfactorily guarantee persistent treatment or care. The University of Toledo Medical focus (UTMC) is a part of the University of Toledo Health Science grounds; which has a few structures, emergency clinics, and wellbeing locales. All the structures are interconnected over-the-ground and underground passage frameworks; isolated through firewalls, having diverse utility frameworks, and distinctive crisis power sources. Henceforth, on the off chance that one piece of the structure is unusable, an elective consideration site can be situated in an alternate prepared structure. The UTMC has additionally worked together with other network accomplices, to set up an elective consideration site at the Collier Building; in this manner, clinical staff or understudies can keep thinking about the migrated patients. During persistent migration, duplicates of clin ical records and other clinical things are sent to the elective center destinations. Correspondence and transport framework and administrations between the medical clinic and the elective facility locales are facilitated in the Hospital war room in contact with the Lucas County Emergency Operation Coordinator. Furthermore, the Hospital Council of Northwest Ohio in a joint effort with territorial wellbeing suppliers, have started an arrangement for opening a significant elective consideration facility.The HICS has an adaptable technique to crisis the executives which can be used in different debacle reactions.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Mountain Man Brewing Company Case Study Essay

What is the present circumstance? Mountain Man Brewing Company (MMBC) is a privately-owned company established in West Virginia in 1925 by Guntar Prangel. The organization is presently worked by Guntars grandson, Oscar. Oscars child, Chris, is scheduled to acquire the business in five years when his dad resigns. Mountain Man (MM) Lager is the lead item and the main brew as of now created by the organization. The formula for the ale depended on a refined family formula and is known for its tasty, severe taste. By the 1960s, the ale had set up itself as a heritage lager with a rich history, and the organization keeps on keeping up its autonomous, family-possessed status which bids to its center consumers. By 2005, the notoriety of MM Lager in the East Central locale of the U.S. had developed to create incomes of simply over $50 million, and the brew held the top market position among ales in West Virginia. MM Lager won Å"Best Beer in West Virginia  in 2005 for the eighth year straight. What has made MMBC effective and recognizes it? MMBC has appreciated achievement as a result of a few variables. Despite the fact that it is a provincial brewer, it has eminent name acknowledgment. An ongoing report demonstrated that Mountain Man Lager was considered by numerous individuals to be West Virginias most popular brew. Moreover, it has exceptionally solid brand position with buyers preferring MM Lagers one of a kind taste and quality fixings from the family formula. At last, MMBC has a prepared deals power that is extremely skilled and getting its item into the correct channels to contend with national distilleries. The heritage of the organization is its primary distinctive characteristic from its rivals. As referenced previously, the solid brand value has made MMBC stand apart as a bottling works that has encountered client devotion for progressive ages. Holding the title of Å"West Virginias Beer  permits MM Lager to have an instilled introduction to buyers in the area and go about as a characteristic default for its hands on supporters. What empowered MMBC to make such a solid brand? To cite the Mission Statement, Å"Mountain Man is as yet standing since we make a remarkable brew with an incredible brand name, weve never dismissed our center client, and weve never been enticed by the different folks market.  MMBC represents such novel characteristics that have been the standard for building up an enhanced brand with solid value. For right around 50 years it held the top piece of the pie for ales of West Virginia in most of the states where it was disseminated recognizing them in prime situation among contenders. Research of regular workers guys discovered that MMBC was as conspicuous as driving makers Chevrolet and John Deere in the East Central locale. Other than effective marking endeavors in a large market, MM Lager was evaluated with an amazingly serious Every Day Value underneath claim to fame brands, yet above premium residential brands. This considered an emanation of realness recognizing it as higher caliber than Miller and Budweiser, for example, all whi le increasing gradual incomes from the art brewers like Sam Adams. MMBC could create expanded turns at registers without having the profound pockets of their rivals. What has caused MMBCs decrease regardless of its solid image? Examination of MMBCs plan of action requires the background of the U.S. brew industry. Since 2001, U.S. per capita lager utilization has declined by 2.3% because of expanding rivalry from wine and spirits-based beverages. MMBCs incomes are down 2% comparative with the earlier monetary year. The present condition of the organization and economic situations proposes that a solitary product offering might be unreasonable. Starting at 2005, MMBC was the main major territorial brew organization to not grow past its lead ale item. A portion of the populace was as yet intrigued by MMBC, however that section, while steadfast, was maturing. The rate at which MMBC was fabricating new customers was just going to supplant a small amount of their present purchasers. Merchants were separating about which littler brands they would convey, and the level of new purchasers by age bunch was proceeding to diminish. There have additionally been various wild conditions that have been credited to MMBCs decrease regardless of their solid image. Expanded duties and expenses to producers have been unmistakably clear in the rising retail expenses of merchandise in the commercial center. Organizations can't stand to retain the additional uses and consequently give them to the buyer whom will in general purchase less as costs increment; these increments are hitting their pockets on the home front too. Moreover, the normal purchaser is turning out to be considerably more wellbeing cognizant and has made changes in their inclination of mixed drink fragment. Brew is exceptionally high in calories; for example, when contrasted with wine or spirits and diminishing caloric admission has been one of those genuinely ongoing wellbeing cognizant changes being made. Lager sweethearts are staying with their decision of drink; be that as it may, subbing a light form of their preferred image. With these elements on the ascent consistently and the center segment of MM Lager arriving at an age section were extensively less portions of salary are committed to liquor buys, the bottling works has gradually lost piece of the overall industry to the bigger local brewers that have been lucky enough to cash-flow to contribute on expanded promoting and advertising. Ought to MMBC present a light brew? With deals declining and looking for new regions of business development, Chris Prangel, an ongoing MBA graduate, is thinking about a battle to dispatch MM Light. Light lager deals in the U.S. have been developing at a compound yearly pace of 4%, while customary premium brew deals, for example, MM Lager, have declined by a similar rate. The center age bunch for light brew consumers is 25-44 which stretches out beneath the present center age gathering of MM Lager (men beyond 45 years old). At present, MM Lager has a 4-to-1 male-to-female proportion while the light brew class proportion is around 3-to-2. Utilizing current paces of decay with overall revenue down 6.2% in 2005, 2010 deals of MM Lager will keep on diminishing at the present pace of decrease. Given the present condition of the lager business, it is sensible to extend that the pace of deals decay will keep on quickening later on. In 2005, MMBC was as yet beneficial and could stand to assume the expenses of expanding its product offering; in any case, every year that the organization held on to do so imperiled its capacity to manage the cost of new expenses. From the start, there gives off an impression of being a conspicuous chance to extend the brand by acquainting a light brew with the market. The worry is that a light blend would distance the center client base and disintegrate the characteristics that make MM a beneficial organization. MM Light will include extra capital consumptions for plant and hardware overhauls and might hurt deals of the ale as brand reliability may get undermined. To show up at an all around educated decision supported by solid budgetary counts, it is first important to play out a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) examination (Exhibit 1). While shortcomings and dangers recognized are not kidding, they are very few whenever contrasted with the numerous qualities and chances of extending the MMBC product offering. Since 9.4% of the locales light lager creation was caught by little brewers, there are triumphs to be had in delivering a light lager. What's more, light brew is answerable for over half of all lager deals in MMBCs East Central area. Indeed, even a little level of the greatest market could be significant for MMBC. Is MM Light monetarily plausible for MMBC? MMBC must create a light lager item so as to stay a serious player in the brew business. This choice depends on budgetary projections of continued benefit. Both industry and friends information were at first given to set the foundation to these figurings (Exhibit 2). MMBC incomes for 2005 were assessed at $50 million; in any case, that income base was anticipated to diminish by 2% yearly. Also, the quantity of barrels of MM Lager sold in 2005 was around 520,000. Territorial light lager deals totaled simply over 18.7M barrels that year and were evaluated to develop at a yearly pace of 4% as decided by industry specialists. As decided by Chris Prangel, the underlying piece of the pie for MM Light in 2006 is assessed to be 0.25%. Following Chris anticipation, we likewise expected a yearly development pace of 0.25% in MM Light income for follow-on years. Ultimately, we were given variable expense per unit information: $66.93 for MM Lager and $71.62 for MM Light. This central arrangement of information took into account a progression of basic presumptions to be sensibly made (Exhibit 2). Earn back the original investment Point (BEP) Analysis While trying to exhibit the feasibility of stretching out MMBCs product offering to incorporate a light brew, breakeven point (BEP) investigation was led. These figurings were performed for both MM Lager and MM Light as the two items will contain MMBCs complete income in years to come (Exhibit 3). It is imperative to take note of that MMBCs fixed expenses were halfway involved previously mentioned budgetary suspicions. SG&A costs for every product offering were given, anyway we decided to apportion an extra $50K in fixed expenses for MM Light to help with name plan. Publicizing stayed predictable with 2005 information for MM Lager, however an extra $750K was included for MM Light as a feature of a serious half year advertising effort. This caused cost is noteworthy in acquainting another item with the blossoming light lager showcase in the east focal district. Finishing the BEP estimations, we have verified that 66,982 barrels of MM Light and 364,738 barrels of MM Lager must be delivered with the end goal for MMBC to earn back the original investment (Exhibit 3). At an expense of $97/barrel, this is workable for MMBC to accomplish by 2008. The accompanying cannibalization investigation gives added detail to help this statement. MM Lager Cannibalization An expansion in MM Light creation will requir

Sunday, August 16, 2020

Straus Historical Society and American-Scandinavian Foundation Scholarship Opportunities COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Straus Historical Society and American-Scandinavian Foundation Scholarship Opportunities COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Enrolling at SIPA â€" and living in New York City â€" represents a serious financial obligation. SIPA has made a firm commitment in recent years to devoting more resources to scholarship and fellowship programs, and fundraising efforts continue so that we can make a SIPA education more affordable. External resources available as well, from all over the world, and SIPA students annually find millions of dollars in such scholarships each year. Our Office of Financial Aid maintains a searchable database of such scholarships, along with providing links to other free scholarship search sites,  and we encourage all applicants to search for these funding opportunities throughout the application process and even once they are enrolled. We have recently come across two awards that may be of interest to some applicants, but please check  our website and keep updated with this very Admissions Blog for many more opportunities:   Straus Historical Society The goal the Straus Historical Society scholarship program is to help support the continuing education of a student or students whose professional goal is in the field of public service.   The Society defines public service as employment in government, the uniform services, public interest in non-governmental research and/or educational and nonprofit organizations, such as those whose primary purposes or to help needy or disadvantage persons or to protect the environment.   Columbia  University is one of only three schools selected for applications for the 2019/2020 school year.  The  application can be found on the Straus Historical Society website. Application deadline: November 1, 2018. The   American-Scandinavian Foundation The Foundation offers over $500,000 in funding to students from Iceland, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway to undertake graduate level study and research in the United States. Awards are made in all fields. See this website for more information. The application will open in November, with a deadline of April 1, 2019.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Fashion is about Identity - 701 Words

Fashion is an idea that enables individuals to make clear statements about one selves and their identities, with the use of clothes, accessories and/or other physical items, enabling the individual to visually communicate who they are, who they would like to be, what kind of social group they belong to. Hence fashion plays a vital by allowing people to construct, sculpt and express their identities, especially in larger metropolitan cities where they â€Å"mingle with crowds of strangers and have only fleeting moments to impress them† (Bennett, 2005, p. 96)Thus, fashion is about identity, about the self and as described by Roche (Roche, 2000, p. 193) â€Å"the most talkative of social facts†. Many other immediate assumptions can be drawn up about an individual through mere observation of dress – which part of the world they may be from, what kind of job they may possess or what their economic position might be. This is mostly because even though designers create fashion it is mostly influenced or rather culturally constructed. Culture is the common social meanings and representations, it is an individuals Values, beliefs, norms so basically how one make sense of the world or lives their life. Fashion also helps sculpt the male and female image, thus determining what is or is not socially acceptable â€Å"Fashion and clothing are instrumental in the process of socialization into sexual and gender roles† (Barnard, 1996, p. 111). Culture and gender are two significantly emphasizedShow MoreRelatedHow Fashion Can Make Expressive Visual Statements About Their Identities2243 Words   |  9 PagesBennett (2005, p. ) argues that â€Å"Fashion provides one of the mo st ready means through which individuals can make expressive visual statements about their identities† . It is said that clothes play a big role in the society: it can either identify or hide a person and in term of revealing identity garments can show one’s tastes, politic position, status in the society, ‘power and success’, educational and cultural background and sexual preferences (Bennett, 2005). Fashion not only helps to express butRead MoreThe Work Of Andy Bennett1398 Words   |  6 Pagesto analysis fashion in relation to theories of identity and how they in form our understanding of fashion. Fashion can be defined as a constant changing trend. Fashion has a deeper influence in people’s lives. Now days fashion show parts of individual’s identities, which shows who they are as people. The first idea will be discussing Bennett’s statement â€Å"Fashion provides one if the most ready means through which individual can make expres sive visual statements about their identities† (2005: 96) explainingRead MoreCreating Meaning and Identity through Consumption Essay1307 Words   |  6 Pagescapitalism society and material culture, people tend to form their identities through consumption, this means more than to consume products which are needed to survive, consumption can also link to self-identity formation and expression. People are imperceptibly influenced by the mass media that self-identity can be shaped and formed through consuming specific products. Therefore it can be said, fashion is an important element of identity formation. Young people are commonly feared of being seen as outdatedRead MoreFashion ´s Effect on Society Essay1373 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"For me, fashion helps to express myself; it should always be based on what I find interesting and no one else!† I said. For many centuries, people had designed creative fashion that have some ambiguous message behind the stylish clothing they wore. Civilization began to produce more clothing for global benefits and lead to the development of a new age. Long ago people started wanting to become an eminent player from the crowd and be different from other people by means of changing their clothingRead MoreProject Runway Essay827 Words   |  4 Pagesaudience starts to cheer. The models are about to show off a new line of clothing from a designer that will become the newest trend in fashion. But what is fashion? Many people think about models, the runway, New York and expensive clothing when they hear the word fashion. But fashion is much more than that. Fashion is clothing that defines who a person is, their likes and dislikes, their personality and most importantly their culture. Clothing dates back to about 100,000-500,000 years ago. The firstRead MoreHow Does Fashion Shape Social Identities Essay1362 Words   |  6 PagesHow does fashion shape social identities? In my essay I am going to investigate the meaning and the relationship between these two words: fashion and identity, particularly in relation to social status. Fashion and identity both represent a complex notion, especially when we talk about their association. Nowadays, if we pronounce the word ‘fashion’, which has become one of the most common words in our society, we immediately think of clothes; what people wear in the streets or what the majorityRead MoreFashion Defines Individual Identity, Image, Shoes, And Accessories965 Words   |  4 Pagesoutfits, shoes, and accessories. Fashion defines individual identity, impacts perceptions, and portrays a symbolic meaning. Fashion helps the individual grow and change one’s emotional and physical identities. The clothes one wears daily define how the individual feels and reflects one’s attitudes and moods. For example, if an individual is lethargic, one may be seen in sweatpants; if one is feeling powerful, the individual may be seen in a suit. The phrase â€Å"fashion choice† does not just includeRead MoreWhen People Talk About The Word â€Å"Fashion,† It Automobility1676 Words   |  7 PagesWhen people talk about the word â€Å"fashion,† it automobility provides a sense of popular styles of clothing, accessories, and makeup. Fashion influences not only on people’s behaviors, but also influences the society as a whole, such as socially and economically. In Adorned in Dreams, the author Elizabeth Wilson, introduces that fashion is a form of art, and people can use fashion to express their ideas, beliefs, and desires. Wilson also introduces the history of fa shions in order to prove that peopleRead MoreCoordinate Brick And Mortar And Online Platforms1722 Words   |  7 Pagesand online platforms. This is of high importance because of the rise in online shopping. According to Nick Hodson and Marco Kesteloo, two members of PwC’s Strategy group, three fourths of retail sales growth has occurred through online channels. About 15% of retailers’ total sales are occurring online. This steady online growth is giving back new life to the physical stores of some retailers (Hodson). For example, a shopper on ASOS finds a blouse that she likes online but she is not sure of herRead MoreFashion And Fashion1557 Words   |  7 Pagesstand out from the common way that people were used to wear it. Fashion can be defined as a constantly changing trend, it is necessary to recognize that at the present moment fashion has a deeper influence on peoples life, is not only anymore something to cover our self, fashion nowadays show some part of peoples personality and tell to other people who they are. People can decide in which way want to be perceive, showing that fashion posses more than just frivolous reasons for its existence, is

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Los Angeles County Federation Of Labor Essay - 1702 Words

The start of the Los Angeles County Federation of Labor Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Abstract The Los Angeles County Federation of Labor is a regional labor organization in the state of Los Angeles that has evolved representation of the interests of workers to include political involvement. Its formation was a function of political influence in labor and the relevance of merging labor movements to have better representations and high compulsion among leaders (Dean et al., 2009). The Los Angeles County Federation of Labor, as the name suggests, is a composite labor body formed after the merging of all labor bodies in Los Angeles. The start of the Los Angeles County Federation of Labor Los Angeles County Federation of Labor is a federation of Los Angeles labor organization in 1957(Dean et al., 2009). Its formation was a direct response to trends in merging of organizations representing the interests of workers all over the US. The Los Angeles County Federation of Labor was an improvement of the earlier Los Angeles Council of Labor and the formation enabled involvement in regional and national politics after the emergence of politics as an important influence of labor movements(Dean et al., 2009). Initially, in the late 19th century, labor organizations were not as organized as they are today. In Los Angeles, there was a federation of labor parties that was officially organized by five different unions. The different unionsShow MoreRelatedEconomic Effects of Illegal Immigration in Los Angeles, California3434 Words   |  14 PagesILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA Purpose of Study Estimates state that over 1.2 million people immigrate to the United States each year, thereby thrusting the issue of illegal immigration to the forefront of today news headlines. From an economic standpoint, the effort to absorb illegal immigrants often negatively impacts cities as well as the entire country. This paper addresses the negative economic outcome of illegal immigration in the city of Los Angeles, California throughRead MoreEssay on Immigration Reform750 Words   |  3 Pagesimmigrants use more welfare and earn lower incomes than natives, which results in immigrants paying less taxes. The Urban Institute is a non-profit organization that investigates the social and economic problems of this country. Statistics from a Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) newsletter shows, . . . the share of immigrant households below the poverty line (29 percent) is much higher than the share of native households that are poor (14 percent)--more than twice as high. Due toRead MoreEssay about Immigration Reform722 Words   |  3 Pagesimmigrants use more welfare and earn lower incomes than natives, which results in immigrants paying less taxes. The Urban Institute is a non-profit organization that investigates the social and economic problems of this country. Statistics from a Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) newsletter shows, ?. . . the share of immigrant households below the poverty line (29 percent) is much higher than the share of native households that are poor (14 percent)--more than twice as high.? DueRead MoreCuban American Family Of Six Children1222 Words   |  5 PagesMexican Americans, formed different organizations that to take a collective actions in order to achieve our goals of equality, justice, and civil rights. For example the Confederacion de Uniones de Obreros Mexicanos (CUOM) was formed in 1927 in Los Angeles. It proved to be the first really stable organization among Mexican workers. They organized three thousand workers into twenty locals, and in 1928 they struck in the Imperial Valley. This strike was broken by violence, arrests, and deportationsRead MoreEssay on Proposition 352576 Words   |  11 Pagesfourteen cities where sex trafficking occurs were in California. Sacramento and Los Angeles were in the top five. San Francisco and San Diego were among the fourteen as well. Due to the high levels of sex trafficking in California the creators of Proposition 35 felt compelled to do something about it. Changes to the original law: The whole point of this proposition was to increase the punishment for sex trafficking and labor trafficking. The first change was expanding the definition of human traffickingRead MoreEconomic Impact of Immigration Essay1789 Words   |  8 Pagesmigration to California even as immigration remains high and housing prices move to record levels in relation to the rest of the nation.† Non supporters of immigration publish their opposition to immigration. Reports like the one written by the Federation for American Immigration Reform, â€Å"Immigration, Energy and the Environment† have made parallels to immigration causing, and at the very least not helpful to the reduction of greenhouse gasses. This view by non-supporters, due to the sheer volumeRead MoreTeacher Union2302 Words   |  10 Pageswhich contribute millions of dollars to campaign contributions and lobbying. Fortune Magazine has consistently ranked National Education Association in the top 15 of its Washington Power 25 list for influence in the nation’s capital. The American Federation of Teachers along with the National Education Association has given more than $60 million combined in campaign contributions over the last 20 years (Moe 267). Ballot initiatives that are created in to order to begin school reform usually are defeatedRead MoreTopics in Labor Relations4957 Words   |à ‚  20 PagesKey Topics in Labor Relations 26 February 2012 Lynne Treykor Collective bargaining, as its name implies, is achieved when two or more parties come together to make a decision about something. Specifically, it is achieved when employers and a group of employees work together to decide important terms and conditions regarding employment. These terms and conditions include compensation as well as rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, and unions. They can also include guidelinesRead MoreAmerica s Labor Movement : An Important Part Of American Society2163 Words   |  9 Pages America’s Labor Movement Dewey Greear Regis University â€Æ' America’s Labor Movement The labor movement was and still is an important part of American society. The history of the labor movement will be examined from the founding of the National Labor Union in 1866 thru to today’s times. I will go in depth on a couple of the early parts of the movement and then summarize key events that have happened up until today. Amongst the discussions on these events, I will talk of the impact the eventRead MoreBrazil Research Paper3949 Words   |  16 Pagesto also ship the sugar back to Europe made it one less risk the Portuguese had to worry about. The trading of sugar also impacted other parts of the Brazilian colony. A slave trade was set up along with the sugar trade; this was due to the need for labor on the sugar cane mills. Slavery in Brazil ended up lasting until 1888; Brazil was one of the last countries to abolish slavery. It is estimated that about 35% of slaves involved in the Atlantic slave trade ended up in Brazil (Brazil Equitable). Around

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects of Inflation Free Essays

Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices which results in a decline in the purchasing power of money. Inflation is measured through the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which measures proportional changes in prices in a representative â€Å"basket† of g’n’s, weighted according to their importance in a typical Australian households budget. The RBA aims to keep inflation at an annual rate of 2-3%, and in order to do this a number of policies are available for the Australian government. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of Inflation or any similar topic only for you Order Now Keeping Inflation under control is a primary concern for the Australian Government as it affects so many different parts of the Economy, including Economic growth, standard of living and unemployment. There are three types of inflation, depending on their causes. Firstly, demand pull inflation occurs when there is an excessive aggregate demand at or near full employment. If aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply, prices of g’n’s rise as a rationing mechanism. This form of inflation is usually associated with periods of high economic activity. Secondly is cost-push inflation. If business costs such as the cost of wages or materials rise, businesses may aim to maintain profit levels by passing these costs onto consumers. This will result in higher prices and therefore inflation. The final type of inflation is imported inflation. Imported inflation occurs when the price of imports rises, and either adds to business costs (resulting in cost-push inflation) or feeds into the CPI as the price of final goods. Furthermore, a depreciation in the Au$ will raise import prices, also adding to imported inflation. There are a number of factors which may cause inflation in the Australian economy. A major cause of demand-pull inflation is excessive growth in aggregate demand. If aggregate demand increases from AD to AD1, aggregate supply which is the equivalent of real GDP will rise to GDP2 and the price level will rise from P to P2. This results in the inflationary gap of cd. This increase in aggregate demand may be the result of a number of factors, including increases in consumption expenditure, investment spending, net government expenditure, the money supply, or export incomes. Another major cause of inflation, this time cost-push inflation, is a decrease in aggregate supply. If aggregate supply decreases from AS to AS1, real GDP will decrease to GDP2 and the price level will rise to P1. This results in both a contraction in real GDP and a rise in inflation. The main causes of this decrease in aggregate supply is excessive wage growth not accompanied by productivity increase, a rise in the cost of raw materials, and other inputs, or a rise in government taxes or other charges that raise costs for firms. Cost-push inflation may also be the result of imported inflation it there is a rise in world prices of imported goods used in the production process (such as raw materials and intermediate goods) firms are likely to pass these costs onto consumers, resulting in inflation on the other hand if there is a rise in world prices of consumer goods, increased import prices will feed directly into the CPI, also resulting in inflation. Furthermore a depreciation in the Au$ in foreign exchange markets will result in a rise in the prices of imported raw materials, intermediate goods, and consumer goods, again contributing to Australia’s inflation. This is demonstrated in the stimulus when the RBA credits the decrease in inflation to the fading impact of 2000s exchange rate depreciation. A less common cause of inflation is the existence of monopolies or oligopolies. If a monopoly or oligopoly exists in an industry, the lack of competition allows producers to push up prices. This again results in inflation. The final cause of inflation in Australia is inflationary expectations. Inflationary expectations refer to the behaviour of individuals and businesses who seek to compensate for the current inflation, as well as expected future price rises. This may be the result of either firms pushing up prices, or wage earners seeking higher nominal wages. Also, if consumers expect future prices to rise, they rather buy g’n’s now, which leads to increases in spending. This results in demand-pull inflation. Inflation can impact the economy in 3 ways. 1)By encouraging investment in speculative and unproductive activities and discouraging investment in ventures considered productive. Inflation encourages investment in real assets such as gold and real estate because they are considered ‘good shelters’ for inflation. This is because the scarcity of them often outpaces or at least keeps pace with the rate of inflation. If inflation occurs, people will seek to own such assets, shifting resources to these speculative and unproductive assets. Similarly this discourages investment in other assets. This is because entrepreneurs will not think it is financially viable to invest and pursue a project that will only result in less profit, due to the higher costs of inflation. Similarly inflation increases the cost of production thus also discouraging entrepreneurs. For example, if inflation is high, people will invest in gold and real estate. Otherwise known as the opportunity cost, because people will allocate their resources into such ventures (gold and real estate) they must then forego investing into other ventures that are considered productive such as a new business, that may be producing capital goods or normal goods and services. Also by discouraging entrepreneurs is the rise in the costs of production that occur due to inflation, for example the raw materials. Similarly interest rates will rise, making it more expensive to borrow funds for investment purposes, making investment projects less profitable. Either way, inflation can cause a loss in production of capital goods, leading to lower living standards in the future, or a loss in the production of normal goods and services, leading to lowering current living conditions, as current needs and wants go unsatisfied. Since returns from productive capital take longer to materialise, it means that entrepreneurs are also faced with a lesser return. This means that if the rate of inflation is greater than the return offered by the investment, then the project will not be considered economically viable, nor worthwhile. Similarly the risk of loss from any investment project will grow with inflation. Many small businesses take a couple of years before they start to make a profit, so if inflation is high, and is was not taken into account when the business was first planned, then the cost of production may rise, and the resulting price for the commodity will be too high for consumers. ) If inflation is present and is greater than that overseas, it reduces the overseas competitiveness of the Australian economy. This is because inflation is not only associated with a rise in prices, but also an increase to the costs of production. Therefore making overseas exports cheaper to the domestic market. Similarly the overseas firms do not have to put up with the rises in the costs of production. This provides a leakage in the circular flow (p urchase of exports) and thus dampening demand in the domestic market, which if severe enough could lead to a recession, bringing with it many economic problems. An example of how inflation can lead to a recession, would be the 1970s, when high inflation averaged at 10. 4%. Which due to the high oil prices and strong domestic demand led to high inflation in the 1980s (8. 1%). This period of high inflation led to a dampening in spending and a recession in the 1990s (1990-1992) causing many problems such as unemployment. 3) It also creates many winners and losers in the economy. Those that benefit are the owners of real assets (real assets and gold), because their assets are worth more. As well as those belonging to well-organized groups who can demand wage increases (eg, strong trade unions. ) This can lead to rapidly rising wages, increasing the costs of production, and also discouraging investment in productive capital as mentioned above. In addition to this inflation can benefit people who have already borrowed funds because the cost of repayment, represent less as inflation rises. This is because inflation is defined by a loss in the real value of money, therefore the repayment will diminish over time. Conversely inflation disadvantages those on fixed incomes because they lose the real value of income as their money represents less purchasing power. Similarly for the same reasons it disadvantages those that keep their money in liquid form (ie, bank deposits). Also those that lend money receive less back in terms of repayment, due to the loss in value (eg, A mortgage repayment in 1960 was worth more than in 1980, where high inflation had occurred). Also since it reduces international competitiveness, inflation can disadvantage exporters who find themselves with less business opportunities. This can effect the economy, as overseas markets will not purchase Australian goods and services. Therefore the economy will not receive the injection into the circular flow that it would usually, without inflation. Without the strong domestic support that is present in Australia’s economy, the economy could have the effect of dampening economic activity, and aggregate demand. When inflation occurs in the Australian economy it usually had a number of causes. The main causes are excess aggregate demand, cost-push inflation, inflationary expectations and imported inflation. inflation disadvantages many groups in the economy, who in turn benefit other groups. This is because inflation can influence the allocation of resources in regards to encouraging and discouraging investment, the overseas competitiveness of the Australian market, as well as effecting individuals and firms, who often benefit at the expense of others. How to cite Effects of Inflation, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

General Law of Contract Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the General Law of Contract. Answer: Introduction Contract lawis an important field for any and every business, irrespective of its scale and the industry in which the business operates. In order for the businesses to conduct their business efficiently, it becomes crucial that the contractlaw is properly adhered, as nearly every aspect of business requires a contract to be formed[1]. Electronic Transaction Act, 1999[2], short for ETA is a crucial piece of legislation where the different aspects of contractlaw merge and through which, different regulations for the digital marketing are presented. In the following parts, a discussion has been carried in which thegeneral law of contract has been discussed. Apart from this, the different aspects of ETA, which can be applicable on the business of Thelonious have been discussed and have been applied, so as to conclusively provide an advice for the client. General Law of Contract A contract denotes that a promise has been made between two or more parties, in which one side pays the consideration and the other side undertakes the condition for which the promise has been made.[3] A contract can be created by putting down the terms on a paper and getting them signed from both the contracting parties, which would result in a written contract; or simply by exchanging the terms in an oral manner, making a verbal contract. For the formation of contract, there is a need to have the elements of offer, acceptance, clarity, consideration, intention and capacity. In case even one of these elements is not present, a contract cannot be formed[4]. The first step towards creating a contract is the offer. One party has to offer some terms on the basis of which the promise is made, to the other party[5]. It is important to differentiate between an invitation to treat and an offer. The former denotes the aim of the parties to start with the negotiations for the contract and the latter shows the aim of the parties to be bound by the contract[6]. When the goods are displayed on the shop window, they are an invitation to treat as was stated in Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots[7] and the offer is only made when the individual picks the goods and takes it to the cashier for billing. And so, on the basis of display, the shopkeeper is not obligated to sell the product. The adverts in the newspaper are also taken to be invitation to treat, as was famously held in Partridge v Crittenden[8]. However, when it comes to a unilateral offer made in the newspaper, as was held in Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company[9], which can b e accepted through performance, it is deemed that an offer has been made instead of an invitation to treat. The next step which has to be taken for the creation of any contract is the acceptance. The acceptance has to be taken on the offer which was made and by the individual to whom the offer was made[10]. The acceptance has to be properly communication and a silence is not an acceptance and the famous example of this is Felthouse v Bindley[11]. It is important that while communicating the acceptance, the offer is accepted in the exact manner in which it was made, without modifying or altering it. When the communication has changed or altered term, it is considered as counter offer as was famously established in Hyde v. Wrench[12]. And this would mean that the original offer is expired. The date of acceptance, as per the general acceptance rules provides that the acceptance date is such date on which the offering party attains the communication of acceptance sent by the accepting party. However, a key exception to this rule is the postal rules of acceptance. As per postal rules, the acceptance date is the date of posting the acceptance letter and the receiving date of this letter is irrelevant. The rationale behind this is considering the postal office as the agent of the offering party[13]. A leading case in which the validity of the postal rules of acceptance was upheld was the case of Adams v. Lindsell[14], whereby the court stated that the contract was enforceable. Though, when a third party responds to such communication and send the acceptance, the date of receipt is the date of acceptance instead of the sending date, as per the case of Leach Nominees Pty Ltd v Walter Wright Pty Ltd[15]. Consideration is one more key element in contract formation, without which, the contract is declared as invalid. A consideration is not required to be adequate and just has to be sufficient. And it is also important that consideration moves from the promisee[16]. The amount of consideration is mutually decided between the parties. And if the consideration does not have economic value, it makes the consideration invalid, as was held in White v Bluett[17]. Another requirement for forming the contract is for the parties to have an intention of entering into lawful relation[18]. The parties also need to have the contractual capacity, in terms of being of legal age and sound mind. Lastly, the terms on which the contract is based has to be very clear for a valid contract to be formed[19]. Electronic Transaction Act A key piece of legislation which is applicable on the digital contracts is the ETA. The electronic contracts are contracts formed through electronic means. Under these, the offer and acceptance are made through emails. Each jurisdiction in the nation has its own version of ETA, which is identical to the ETA of commonwealth[20]. Section 14 relates to the date of sending the offer and acceptance, which is aligned with the postal rules of acceptance. The date on which the communication is sent from the device of the sender is accordingly deemed as the date of offer or acceptance[21]. Section 15 of ETA provides that the communication becomes binding on the creator of the electronic communication in such situation where the authority is obtained from the creator or was sent by the creator of such communication[22]. Section 10 imposes an obligation of signature[23]. This section provides that in such cases where signature is a requirement, the condition would be deemed as been met when the reliable method has been selected for such communication[24]. For instance, the automatic insertion of email headers, in Mehta V J Pereira Fernandes S.A [25] was taken to be an unreliable method for the signing of a document[26]. The validity to the electronic contracts is provided through section 19 of this act[27]. Analysis and Application There are a number of nuances that Thelonious would have to keep in mind for forming the contracts online, owing to his shift towards a digital platform. Particularly when he has to take up the online sales and set the website up, certain key elements of the contract law have to be kept in mind, along with the applicability of the ETA. As is the case with advertisements in the newspapers, the adverts on the internet are deemed as invitation to treat. This can be inferred from the examples of Kodak and Amazon UK, where the prices were wrongly advertised and the court in both the cases upheld the adverts as invitation to treat. The intention is also considered for creating the contracts through online mode. The Supreme Court in the case of Stellard Pty Ltd Anor v North Queensland Fuel Pty Ltd[28] held that the term had been subjected to the contract; however the offer and acceptance consisted of different rounds of telephonic conversation and emails. And this conduct depicted the intention of the parties to form a contract; thus leading to a valid contract being formed in this case. In order to form an electronic contract, there is a need for a clear notice to be given to the customer and to provide that the contract law is applicable. Further, there is a need for a clear statement to show what would be deemed as an acceptance of the agreement. And lastly, the consumer has to be given a chance for reviewing the terms and condition of the agreement, before the contract becomes enforceable on them. There are two key forms of electronic contracts. And these include the click through and the browse wrap. The browse wrap agreements have the terms and conditions at different page, which are accessed through a hyperlink[29]. The click through agreements is the most common type of electronic contracts and in these an individual has to scroll down through the entire terms and conditions of a particular agreement and the acceptance to this agreement is provided by clicking on a tick box or a button which is placed at the bottom of the agreement in order for the same to be transformed into an enforceable contract. In a click through agreement, the agreements terms and conditions are accepted by simply clicking on the I Accept or a similar icon. This is an end user agreement which usually comes with the software covered in the plastic wrapping. The court held that by clicking on Accept icon, which was given in the end of the contractual terms, in of DeJohn v The TV Corporation Internatio nal, et al.[30], the plaintiff had entered into the contract. Thus, it is crucial for Thelonious to keep extra care when drawing up the website and opting for one of these two methods. Specific Advice The common law of contract and the ETA summarized above, along with the different aspects of the electronic contracts and the manner in which these two can be formed draw out a clear advice for Thelonious. Thelonious is required to pay a key attention to all these laws and make informed choices, and present the same to his customers, particularly when they have to form the electronic contract by merely clicking on a button. The customers have to be clearly informed that by clicking on such button, an electronic contract would be formed, which would bind them in a legal manner. The key thought here that the offer and acceptance has to be obtained and the minds have to be met of the consumer and of Thelonious, so that an intention to form an electronic contract is clearly presented. Thelonious would provide the products and the consumer would purchase at the agreed price and at the agreed conditions. Amongst the two methods available for creating online contracts, it is advised to Thel onious to opt for click wrap agreements as the consumer would not have to go to a different page to access the terms and can easily read these on the same page. Conclusion In the preceding parts, the different aspects of contract law, particularly related to the formation of contract were highlighted. The discussion was initially focused in the manner a basic contract is formed, and for which the different elements of contract are required. The discussion then moved on to the different sections of the ETA, which are commonly used in the electronic contract and which even provide the validity to such contracts. This was followed by elucidating the manner in which the electronic contracts are formed, i.e., the click wrap and the shrink wrap, and the need for the consumer to be aware of entering into the contract, by clicking on these. Lastly, an advice for Thelonious was drawn whereby he was advised to adopt the laws stated earlier and take special care while coming up with the manner in which the contracts with the customers are to be made, i.e., the adoption of click wrap method. 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Ill. 2003) Felthouse v Bindley (1862) EWHC CP J35 Hyde v. Wrench (1840) 3 Beav 334 Leach Nominees Pty Ltd v Walter Wright Pty Ltd [1968] WAR 244 Mehta V J Pereira Fernandes S.A [2006] EWHC 813 (Ch) (07 April 2006) Partridge v Crittenden [1968] 2 All ER 421 Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots [1953] 1 QB 401 Stellard Pty Ltd Anor v North Queensland Fuel Pty Ltd [2015] QSC 119 White v Bluett (1853) 23 LJ Ex 36 Contract Law Electronic Transaction Act, 1999 (Cth) Attorney-generals Department, Australian Governemnt, E-commerce (2017) Formaliti, Electronic Signature Law (2017) Legal Vision, Click Wrap Agreement v Browse Wrap Agreement (01 May 2015) Tyree AL, Electronic signatures, 2016